Spreading Petunia WonderWave™
(Petunia X hybrida)
Water thoroughly after sowing to make sure the pelletcracks before the tray is moved to chamber or bench.
Do not cover with vermiculite due to physical barrierscaused by vermiculite.
Stage 1 (Germination takes 3 to 4 days.)
Soil temperature: 72 to 76°F (22 to 24°C)
Light: Lighting is beneficial. See below for detail.
Moisture: Keep soil very wet (level 5) during Stage 1for optimal germination.
Humidity: Maintain 100% relative humidity (RH) untilradicles emerge.
NOTE: Saturated moisture (level 5) and constantenvironmental conditions are the key issues forWonder Wave germination. The best germinationconditions are in a lighted chamber where the lightlevel is about 10 f.c. (100 Lux) or higher, with 72 to 76°F (22 to 24°C).
If a light chamber is not available, either of thefollowing conditions can be substituted for successfulgermination:
Dark chamber for the first 24 to 48 hours at 72 to 76°F (22 to 24°C). Once the trays are moved out ofchamber, maintain saturated moisture (level 5) for therest of Stage 1 at the same temperature.
If germinating on the bench, provide high mediatemperature from 72 to 76°F (22 to 24°C) andsaturated moisture (level 5) by covering with Remay orplastic (Vermiculite is not recommended) until radiclesemerge. If not covered, pay close attention to mediamoisture and maintain saturated condition (level 5) until the end of Stage 1.
NOTE: Because their spreading habit begins after transplanting, Wonder Wave plugs can be produced like other petunia plugs.
Use a well-drained, disease-free seedling medium witha pH of 5.5 to 6.0 and EC about 0.75 mS/cm (1:2extraction).
• Soil temperature: 68 to 75°F (20 to 24°C)
• Light: Up to 2,500 f.c. (26,900 Lux)
• Moisture: Start to slightly reduce soil moisture(level 4) to allow root to penetrate into the media.
• Fertilizer: Apply fertilizer at rate 1 (less than 100ppm N/less than 0.7 mS/cm EC) from nitrate-formfertilizers with low phosphorous.
• Soil temperature: 65 to 70°F (18 to 21°C)
• Light: Up to 2,500 f.c. (26,900 Lux)
• Moisture: Allow media to further dry until the surface becomes light brown (level 2) before watering. Keep the moisture to wet-dry cycle (moisture level 4 to 2).
• Fertilizer: Increase fertilizer to rate 2 (100 to 175ppm N/0.7 to 1.2 mS/cm EC). If growth is slow, apply a balanced ammonium and nitrate-formfertilizer with every other fertilization. Maintainmedium pH of 5.8 to 6.2 and EC between 1.0 and 1.5 mS/cm (1:2 extraction).
• Growth Regulators: Control Wonder Wave pluggrowth first by environment, nutrition and irrigationmanagement, then with chemical plant growthregulators if needed. Minimize ammonium-formnitrogen fertilizer to avoid seedling elongation.
Temperature differential (DIF) can also be used tominimize height. Test all chemical plant regulatorsfirst.
In Northern European conditions: 1 to 3 applicationsof B-Nine/Alar (daminozide) at 1,250 ppm (1.5 g/l 85% formulation or 2.0 g/l 64% formulation) spray has beentested and shown effective if needed.
• Soil temperature: 60 to 65°F (16 to 18°C)
• Light: Up to 5,000 f.c. (53,800 Lux) if temperaturecan be controlled.
• Moisture: Same as Stage 3.
• Fertilizer: Same as Stage 3.
Large Liner Production
For finished plant growers who do not havesupplemental lighting and wish to finish Wonder Wavespreading petunias with the same PGRs as regularpetunias, the best choice is to use larger, pre-lit liners.
The following program produces Wonder Wave linerswhich have flower buds induced and all the heavyPGR applications already taken care of.
72-cell or larger.
Direct sow into liner or transplant from 512 or 406-pluginto liner. Note: If direct sowing, follow all germinationrequirements.
Start long-day conditions (daylength extension to 14hours or 4-hour night interruption) at 5-leaf count orearlier. Continue long-days until plant leaf numberreaches 12 (about 6 to 7 weeks from sowingdepending on soil temperature, or up to 9 weeks iftransplanted from small plugs).
Be aware that if plant material is moved from a 14hour environment to less than 12 hours of light, thereis a possibility of bud abortion occurring.
To achieve May flowering with a liner production timeof 6 weeks, use the following schedule:
Week 3: B-Nine/Alar (daminozide) at 5,000 ppm (6.0g/l 85% formulation or 7.8 g/l 64% formulation)
Week 4: Repeat B-Nine/Alar spray
Week 5: Bonzi (paclobutrazol) spray at 15 ppm (3.8ml/l, 0.4% formulation) to 60 ppm (15.0 ml/l, 0.4%
Week 6: Repeat Bonzi spray, if necessaryIf liner production is taking place during periods of cooltemperatures and low light, the liner production periodis about 1 week longer (about 7 weeks). Therefore, allPGR applications can be postponed 1 week (postpone2 weeks if transplanted).
All other environmental conditions follow normal plugproduction regimes.
Note: Do not overgrow Wonder Wave plugs. If plugsbecome rootbound, the plant slows/stops growing.
Rootbound plugs are more susceptible to disease. Ittakes about 1 to 2 weeks for plants to recover aftertransplanting from rootbound plugs. Make sure rootshave optimum room for fastest crop timing.
Growing On to Finish
Important Notes for Producing Top-Quality WonderWave Plants
• Wonder Wave™ petunias are long-day plants.
See Growing On to Finish – Photoperiod/Light for specific details.
• New variety Wonder Wave Purple Improved isless daylength sensitive and flowers about oneweek earlier than Wonder Wave Purple Classic.
• Because of their very vigorous growth, Wonder Wave petunias require a higher rate of plant growth regulators than standard petunias. See Growing On to Finish – Growth Regulators for specific details.
• Tips for finishing larger liners. See below.
Plug and Larger Liner Production
Refer to the separate Wonder Wave SpreadingPetunias Plug and Liner Production Grower Facts forcomplete details.
Growing On to Finish from Plugs
Use a well-drained, disease-free, soilless medium with
a pH of 5.5 to 6.3 and a medium initial nutrient charge.
Nights: 13 to 16°C (55 to 65°F)
Days: 16 to 18°C (65 to 75°F)
Wonder Wave can be grown as cool as 10°C (50°F)
Crop timing (time to flower) is related to averagetemperature when grown under proper day length.
Wonder Wave plants will take longer to flower whengrown in cooler conditions.
If properly acclimated, Wonder Wave petunias cantolerate temperatures several degrees below freezing.
Ride The Wave petunia lighting requirements vary bylocation, variety and production week. Refer to theSupplemental Lighting Chart on the following page.
Start long-day or night-interruption conditions at 5-leafcount or earlier. Continue long-days until plants have aminimum of 12 leaves or until proper natural daylengthis reached. When producing Wonder Wave petuniasearly in the year when days are short, decrease croptimes by continuing to use supplemental lighting. Dayextension or night break (providing a 4-hour nightinterruption from 10:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m.) areacceptable.
Both HID and incandescent lights are equally effectivefor flower induction. For initiation, light levels of 100Lux (10 f.c.) at 3 m (10 ft) above plant canopy is recommended. However plants grown underincandescent lights will stretch more and need more PGRs to control plant size. Incandescent lights willalso affect plant habit by causing shoots to be moreupright than under short days, particularly for Wonder
Wave Rose and Wonder Wave Pearly. Plants willresume their normal spreading habit under natural lightconditions in the garden. Keep light levels as high aspossible while maintaining moderate temperatures.
High light levels or PGR applications may cause white“splashes” or star patterns to appear on the blooms ofWonder Wave Pearly.
Wonder Wave petunias require more fertilizer than isusually recommended for petunias. For best results, apply nitrate-form with low phosphorus fertilizer at rate4 1.5-2.0 mS/cm EC (225 to 300 ppm N) every otherirrigation. Apply a balanced ammonium and nitrateform fertilizer with low phosphorus as needed toencourage growth and balance medium pH. Maintainmedium pH 5.8 to 6.2.
To assure consumer satisfaction, an optional topdressing with slow-release fertilizer can be applied 10days before shipping.
The following growth regulator schedule is used for growing on Wonder Wave petunias at thePanAmerican Seed Co. Venjuizen facility in theNetherlands. This “recipe” results in 15-cm (6-in.) potsof heavily branched Wave plants with a spread ofapproximately 25 to 30 cm (10 to 12 in.) whenflowering begins – the perfect look for point of sale.
For Wonder Wave Rose and Wonder Wave Pearlythe pots will be covered with blooms. For Wonder
Wave Blue, Wonder Wave Pink, Wonder Wave
Purple Improved, Wonder Wave Purple Classic andWonder Wave Lavender, the first flowers will appearcloser to the center of the pot.
15-cm (6-in.) Pots
Apply a B-Nine/Alar (daminozide) spray at 2.9-5.9 g/l, 85% formulation or 3.9-7.5 g/l, 64% formulation (2,500to 5,000 ppm) 7 to 10 days after transplanting. Repeat7 days later. Use a Bonzi drench one time at 1.5-2 ml/l, 0,4% formulation (6-8 ppm). For Wonder WaveLavender, Wonder Wave Rose and Wonder Wave
Blue a lower dose could be used. Apply this drench 3to 4 weeks after transplanting or when shoots havereached the edge of the pot. Follow with a Bonzi sprayone time at 3-7 ml/l, 0,4% formulation (12 to 28 ppm)
one week later for additional control if necessary. ForWonder Wave Purple Improved a Bonzi spray higherthan rest of varieties could be needed to end with. But
don’t go higher than 7 ml/l, 0,4% formulations (28ppm).
Note: Topflor can be used in place of Bonzi at 2/3 therate of Bonzi.
Somewhat dry conditions during the finishing stage willalso keep Wonder Wave petunias more compact; allow plants to wilt slightly between waterings. If plantsare grown pot-tight, PGR applications must be donemore often or at higher rates than plants that arespaced over time. High temperatures or a moistgrowing regime may also necessitate greater PGRapplication rates to produce the best product.
Can be treated as a 15 cm (6-in.) pot.
Lower rates if more growth is needed.
B-Nine/Alar improves branching, but may delayflowering about 1 week. Bonzi does not appear toaffect flower timing. Plants grow out of either plantgrowth regulator almost immediately after transplant tothe landscape.
No major problems will occur if using good cultural and IPM practices.
Sow to transplant (264-cell plug): 5 to 6 weeks
Transplant to flower:
Spring: 7 to 10 weeks under long days
Summer: 4 to 7 weeks under long days with high lightand minimum night temp. of 18°C (65° F).
Total Crop Time:
Spring: 12 to 16 weeks
12cm (4.8-in.)pot 1 plant per pot 12-14 weeks
15-cm (6-in.) pot 1 plant per pot 12-14 weeks
25-cm (10-in.) basket 3-4 plants per basket 14-16 weeks
Summer: 9 to 13 weeks
12-cm (4.8-in.) pot 1 plant per pot 9-11 weeks
15-cm (6-in.) pot 1 plant per pot 9-11 weeks
25-cm (10-in.) basket 3-4 plants per basket 10-13 weeks
Wonder Wave Purple Improved, Wonder Wave Lavender, Wonder Wave Blue, Wonder Wave Pearly, Wonder Wave Salmon and Wonder Wave Rose flower up to one week earlier than Wonder Wave Purple Classic and Wonder Wave Pink.
Containers should be 4.5-SVD (11-cm) or larger.
Container Size: 11 to 15 cm (4.5 to 6 in.)
Plants Per Pot/Basket: 1
Container Size: 25 cm (10 in.) HB
Variety: Purple Improved, Purple Classic, Pink, Pearly
Plants Per Pot/Basket: 3
Container Size: 25 cm (10 in.) HB
Variety: Blue, Rose, Salmon, Lavender
Plants Per Pot/Basket: 4
Growing On to Finish from Large Liners
Wonder Wave needs natural day during spring whenday length is longer than 11 hours.
One or more (if grown pot-to-pot) Bonzi 5-8 ml/l, 0,4% formulation (20 to 32ppm) spray applications based on temperature, weather conditions and cultural practice. All other environmental conditions follow the normal production.
Sowing to transplant: 6 to 7 weeks for direct sowing;
7 to 9 weeks for transplant from small plug.
Transplant to flower: 5 to 6 weeks from 50-cell liner (1 more week for Wonder Wave Purple Classic and Wonder Wave Pink); 5 to 7 weeks from 72-cell liner (1 more week for Wonder Wave Purple Classic and Wonder Wave Pink).
Hanging Basket Tips
At the end of production, maintain fertilization andutilize PGRs. Do not eliminate fertilization to control
growth just prior to shipping. Apply fertilizer at half rateand, to hold plant habit, utilize PGRs. Provide good aircirculation at the plant level. This reduces potential fordisease and die-off.
Do not allow plants to wilt. Maintain moderate moisturelevels. This will provide better plant performance andcolor in the center of the basket.
Note: Growers should use the information presentedhere as a starting point. Crop times will varydepending on the climate, location, time of year, andgreenhouse environmental conditions. Chemical andPGR recommendations are only guidelines. It is theresponsibility of the applicator to read and follow all thecurrent label directions for the specific chemical beingused in accordance with all regulations
Handy Tips For RetailersKeep Wonder Wave plants fresh and healthy at point-
• Display Wonder Wave petunias in filtered sunlight – in direct sun, the plants dry out quickly andrequire more frequent watering.
• Keep Wonder Wave petunias watered. The soilshould never dry out completely.
• In the display, space Wonder Wave petunias withthe leaves just touching between the plants.
• Feed the plants with a liquid fertilizer once a weekat the ratio recommended on the Label.
• Remind home gardeners that Wonder Wavepetunias grow rapidly. These annuals can quicklyfill in a square meter of garden space in just a fewweeks.
Green Thumb Tips
Important Notes for Growing & Using WonderWave® Petunias in the Landscape
• Start with “fresh” plugs. Avoid starting fromrootbound plugs. Plants grown from rootboundplugs may thrive in the greenhouse or nurseryenvironment. However, the same plants may notbe able to generate enough roots to adequatelysustain themselves when planted outside. WonderWave plugs that have been scheduled andtransplanted promptly will root out better in thecontainer and perform better when planted in thelandscape. Allowing the containers to dry outslightly between watering encourages better rootdevelopment. Do not let plants wilt.
• Acclimate plants before planting. As a generalrule, greenhouse or nursery-grown plants willadapt better in the landscape if they are hardenedoff prior to planting. Exposing plants to the outsidetemperatures and light allows the soil to drybetween watering and helps reduce transplantshock.
• Plant well-rooted plants. Avoid planting poorlyrooted plants into the landscape. Poorly rootedplants may wilt quickly if the temperatures becomevery warm soon after planting.
• Follow good soil preparation practices. Wonder Wave petunias tolerate a wide range of soil conditions. However, tilling the soil for good aeration, adding amendments, raising the beds toprovide good drainage, maintaining the proper pH (6.5 to 7.0 is optimum), and using a broadspectrum fungicidal drench all contribute tosuccessful landscape plantings. Plants will take offmore quickly if a liquid feed is used beforeplanting. See “Provide Adequate Nutrition” formore details.
• Rotate plantings. While it is tempting to useWonder Wave petunias every year due to theirexceptional garden performance, it is notrecommended to plant petunias in the same bedsevery year so that the build-up of harmful diseasepathogens specific to all petunias may be avoided.
This can occur whenever the same type of plantsare used in the same bed year after year.
• Petunias prefer sun. Wonder Wave petunias thrivein bright, sunny locations with at least 6 hours ofdirect sunlight. Sun is a MUST to keep WonderWave plants covered with blooms and lookingterrific all season long.
• Space adequately. For fast fill, space WonderWave petunias 12 to 18 in. (30 to 45 cm) apart inthe landscape. Wonder Wave petunias spread 3 to4 ft. (0.9 to 1.2 m), so they can be spaced as far as24 in. (60 cm) apart. Spacing plants closer than 12in. (30 cm) can lead to overcrowding andcontribute to disease.
• Irrigation. Wonder Wave petunias are excellentlandscape performers. However, like any otherplant, they need adequate water after planting inorder to get established in the landscape. Duringthe season, do not overwater. Night watering is notrecommended. Morning watering is preferred.
• Provide adequate nutrition. Give plenty of feed.
Wonder Wave petunias are vigorous growers andbenefit from heavier feeding than standardpetunias, therefore give plenty of feed throughoutthe life of the planting. Before Planting: A goodway to get the plants off to a fast start is to waterthe plants with a liquid fertilizer, such as Daniels,
prior to planting. At Planting: A slow-releasefertilizer (such as NutriCoat or Osmocote), which isreleased by temperature, is recommended. Forbest season-long growth we suggest the following:
incorporate slow release at half rate at installation.
Too much fertilizer too soon will cause plants toput on leaves, but not flowers. At approximatelythe half-way point in the life of the landscape,
apply another half rate of the slow release formula.
In regions where temperatures are elevated, utilizethe 8 to 9 month release formulation as this will
provide fertilizer longer into the season. During theGrowing Season: Because Wonder Wave petuniasare vigorous growers, using a liquid feedthroughout the season, in addition to slow-releasefertilizer, will give best plant performance. Fertilizewith a liquid feed such as Daniels 10-4-3 (1tablespoon per gallon, approximately 300 ppm) forapproximately 6 waterings and water with plainwater on the 7th watering. Later in the season, if
Additional Tips for Using Wonder Wave Petunias in Containers
• Wonder Wave petunias are multi-purpose! In
addition to making a wonderful flowering
groundcover, they’re spectacular in hanging
baskets, large containers, street planters and
• Containers dry out more quickly than groundplantings. Since containers need to be wateredmore frequently, nutrients are likely to be leachedfrom the containers more quickly. As a result theymay also require more frequent feeding.
• Keep your Wonder Wave petunias well-fed anddon’t let them dry out between watering. Apply aliquid fertilizer once a week or use a combinationof liquid and slow-release fertilizers, following therates recommended on the labels.
“Information copied from the breeder.
Muller will not accept any liability for failure and/or damage as a consequence of incorrect and/or inexpert cultivation by or on behalf of the Buyer.”